PURPOSE: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has made genetic testing of patients with epileptic encephalopathies easier – novel variants are discovered and new phenotypes described. Variants in the same gene – even the same variant – can cause different types of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic causes of epileptic encephalopathies in pediatric patients with complex phenotypes.
METHODS: NGS was carried out for three patients with epileptic encephalopathies. Detailed clinical features, brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography were analysed. Researchers searched the Human Gene Mutation Database for the published GABRG2 variants with clinical description of patients and composed a summary of the variants and their phenotypic features.
RESULTS: Researchers identified two novel de novo GABRG2 variants, p.P282T and p.S306F, with new phenotypes including neuroradiological evidence of neurodegeneration and epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). One patient carried previously reported p.P83S variant with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype that has not yet been described related to GABRG2 disorders and a more severe epilepsy phenotype than reported earlier. In all, the literature search yielded twenty-two articles describing 27 different variants that were divided into two categories: those with self-limiting epilepsies and febrile seizures and those with more severe drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathies.
CONCLUSION: This study further expands the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of epilepsies associated with GABRG2 variants. More knowledge is still needed about the influence of the environment, genetic background and other epilepsy susceptibility genes on the phenotype of the specific GABRG2 variants.