CURE Update: Stand Up for Epilepsy Research and Awareness

Greetings from the Epilepsy Awareness Expo at Disneyland Resort!

With so many events around the country happening now for Epilepsy Awareness Month, I want to take a moment to express my gratitude to you, the incredible epilepsy community. You helped raise a record-breaking $2.3 million for CURE’s 20th Anniversary Benefit! With your support, we will continue driving epilepsy research forward.

Though the Benefit is over, Epilepsy Awareness Month events and campaigns, such as CURE’s webinar on epilepsy and stigma, #GivingTuesday, and the #MugsForAdelaide giveaway, are bringing epilepsy and the need for a cure into the spotlight. Read on to learn more about these events.

Also in this update…

Best regards,

Dr. Laura Lubbers, PhD

Laura S. Lubbers, PhD

Free Webinar on Separating Stigma from Truth: Epilepsy Research and Resources

Dive into the science of epilepsy stigma and gain tools to combat harmful stereotypes during CURE’s free webinar, Separating Stigma from Truth: Epilepsy Research and Resources. This free webinar and live Q&A is happening Wednesday, November 28 at 11:00am CT.

Learn what research reveals about public attitudes and beliefs towards epilepsy, as well as how likely people with epilepsy are to encounter stigma. Ann Jacoby, PhD, reviews how negative stereotypes affect quality of life and discusses what communities can do to reduce epilepsy stigma.

Bring your questions for the live Q&A! You can ask Dr. Jacoby questions, such as:

  • What should I do if I believe I’m being discriminated against due to my epilepsy?
  • What resources are available to help me or my child talk more openly about epilepsy?
  • What difference is there in how epilepsy affects people from differing cultures or social statuses?

Learn More or Register Now

On #GivingTuesday, Show the World How Much Epilepsy Research Funding Means to You

#GivingTuesdayGet ready to join the #GivingTuesday movement on Tuesday, November 27! Show the world why epilepsy research matters to you by giving to CURE, posting to social media with the hashtag “#GivingTuesday”, and asking your friends and family to do the same.

Plus, double your #GivingTuesday impact by starting a Facebook fundraiser! Facebook and PayPal are matching up to $7 million dollars in donations made on Facebook for #GivingTuesday. Start your Facebook fundraiser on November 27 and get your Facebook friends involved.

Learn how to start your Facebook fundraiser

How Your Holiday Shopping Can Support Epilepsy Research

Did you know your Black Friday and Cyber Monday shopping could help fund epilepsy research? When you click here, Amazon will donate 0.5% of your eligible purchases to CURE at no cost to you. Be sure to click the link, then shop on smile.amazon.com this holiday season!

In addition to AmazonSmile, you can support epilepsy research and find the perfect gifts for friends and family through other organizations, such as Giftfluence.

Discover how to shop and give

Give the Gift of Awareness: A Mind Unraveled, a Memoir by Kurt Eichenwald, is Available Now

A Mind Unraveled ReviewA Mind Unraveled, the latest book from New York Times bestselling author Kurt Eichenwald, reveals everything about his experiences living with epilepsy. The goal of this book is not only to show those with epilepsy they can accomplish what they want in life, but also to educate the general public about epilepsy, tackling the stigma head-on.

A Mind Unraveled discusses what onlookers should do when someone has a seizure, the risk of SUDEP, terrible potential side effects of antiepileptic drugs, and what forms epilepsy stigma and discrimination can take.

50% of the royalties from A Mind Unraveled support CURE’s mission to find a cure for epilepsy. This holiday season, purchase a copy for your friends and family to spread epilepsy awareness and fund vital research.

Learn More or Purchase A Copy

Chicago: Enter to Win a HAMILTON VIP Experience and Spread Epilepsy Awareness

#MugsForAdelaideEnter the #MugsForAdelaide giveaway for the chance to win two tickets to the Chicago production of HAMILTON, as well as a backstage tour with Miguel Cervantes!

Chicago businesses are serving Adelaide’s Blend coffee during Epilepsy Awareness Month to spread awareness around the critical need for a cure. This coffee is named in honor of Adelaide Cervantes, daughter of HAMILTON Chicago star Miguel Cervantes and CURE board member Kelly Cervantes. Adelaide has infantile spasms, a rare and severe form of epilepsy.

Fairgrounds Coffee, creator of Adelaide’s Blend, donates 20% of the proceeds from the sales of this coffee to CURE.

Learn More

Don’t live in Chicago, but want your own bag of Adelaide’s Blend? Order your coffee online.

Today: Join Us for Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland Resort

Let’s paint Disneyland purple at Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland Resort! This family-friendly event happening today, November 7 unites epilepsy patients, families, doctors, researchers, and organizations.

Head to Disneyland Park to enjoy the rides, build lasting friendships, and spread epilepsy awareness.

Next CURE Events

Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland Resort – November 7

1:26 The Art of Epilepsy Art Show and Wine Tasting in San Francisco – November 10

Speaking of Seizures Poetry Slam – November 10

Understanding and Coping with the Risks of SUDEP – November 15

Walk With Me Art Exhibition – November 24

Webinar on Separating Stigma from Truth: Epilepsy Research and Resources – November 28

Virginia Tech Team

Virginia Tech Leads $2.6 Million Study of Brain Trauma, Epilepsy Connection

Featuring the work of CURE Grantee, Dr. Harald Sontheimer

Virginia Tech is launching a $2.6 million study to determine if traumatic brain injuries can cause changes within the brain that lead to epilepsy.

Funded by the nonprofit Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) and the U.S. Department of Defense, the three-year study seeks to identify the root causes behind why a person may develop epilepsy after he or she has suffered brain trauma, including sports-related concussion and focal contusion injuries.

Five Virginia Tech groups are heading the study: The School of Neuroscience, part of the College of Science; the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute (VTCRI); the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine; and the College of Engineering. All of the research leaders have wide experience in brain injury and neurological disorders.

CURE Discovery: Improving Sleep

CURE Discovery: Improving Sleep with Small Environmental Changes May Decrease Seizures

Relatively small changes in environmental factors which improve the ‘internal clock’ (otherwise known as the circadian rhythm) and the quality of sleep lead to decreases in seizures in mice with similarities to Dravet syndrome, a severe form of epilepsy. These promising results are the latest findings from the lab of CURE grantee Dr. Franck Kalume of Seattle Children’s Hospital, whose grant is generously supported through the BAND Foundation.

Individuals with Dravet syndrome have problems with their circadian rhythm and with regulating their sleep.1 Upon observing that mice with similarities to Dravet syndrome have similar sleep disturbances,2 Dr. Kalume and his team set out to determine if improving circadian rhythm and sleep patterns in these mice could reduce the occurrence of seizures.

To improve circadian rhythm in the mice, the team confined either meals or exercise to nighttime, when mice are typically active. The team limited these activities during the day, when mice typically sleep. As a result of these simple changes, the team found that the mice became more active at night and less active during the day, an indication of improved circadian rhythm. The mice also showed improvements in the quality of their sleep.

Significantly, restricting these activities to nighttime led to a decrease in the incidence of irregular brain activity that is characteristic of an epileptic brain, an indication that improvements in sleep practices may improve epilepsy.

Dr. Kalume and his team next plan to confine both exercise and meals to nighttime to see if this leads to an even greater reduction of seizures. They also plan to determine the effect of these changes on the risk of sudden death in these mice, as these mice and humans with Dravet syndrome are more susceptible to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP).

These important results contribute to our understanding of the relationship between sleep and epilepsy and provide hope for the development of new therapies to improve epilepsy outcomes. Dr. Kalume and his team hope these studies will lead to practical steps not involving medication that individuals with epilepsy can take to improve their circadian rhythm and sleep to reduce seizures and the risk of SUDEP.

1 Licheni SH et al. Sleep problems in Dravet syndrome: a modifiable comorbidity. Dev Med Child Neurol 2018; 60(2):192-198.
2 Kalume F et al. Sleep impairment and reduced interneuron excitability in a mouse model of Dravet Syndrome. Neurobiol Dis. 2015; 77: 141-54.

Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland

Disneyland to Host Sixth Annual Epilepsy Awareness Day

The sixth annual Epilepsy Awareness Day will be held at Disneyland Resort from November 5 – 7, 2018. Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland was founded out of one family’s thankfulness for their young daughter’s recovery and a community-wide passion for the fight against epilepsy. Now, the event is held every year in November (Epilepsy Awareness Month) for epileptic patients and their families to enjoy Disneyland Resort and spread awareness.

Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland is an annual event operated by the Irvine based nonprofit foundation Sofie’s Journey/Epilepsy Awareness Day. “We wanted to create an opportunity to drive epilepsy awareness, with awareness the key to overcoming challenges created by epilepsy,” stated Candy Levy, the non-profit’s cofounder, in a press release for the 2017 event. “At our event we bring together patients, physicians, advocates, non-profits, services, pharma and [in 2017] we had a large section of the convention facility for people to meet their possible and future service dogs.”

Sofie’s Journey, the organization behind Epilepsy Awareness day at Disneyland, began with Sofie Levy, who had her first seizure at 5 years old. For years, her seizures intensified, until she finally underwent surgery to remove the part of the brain that was the source of her seizures. Since her surgery over nine years ago, Sofie has been seizure-free. She is now finishing high school and is studying neurodiagnostics, so that she can soon be working as an EEG Tech. Sofie’s story inspired the Levy family to start Epilepsy Awareness Day, as well as their own private family business, an in-home EEG monitoring service, catering to kids and adults specializing in Autism & Epilepsy.

Over 2,000 people and 100 support groups worldwide are expected to attend this year’s Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland. This year, Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland is partnering with International League Against Epilepsy and working with international and national leaders, including The Danny Did Foundation, Epilepsy Foundation, and Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy, for their commitment in uniting the world’s epilepsy communities.

This year’s Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland also includes a three-day expo held at the Disneyland Hotel. The is free to attend and will feature information booths hosted by various organizations and individuals including nonprofit organizations, Epilepsy centers, service dogs, seizure device apps, and other services. Throughout the expo, guests can attend a variety of talks hosted by Epilepsy physicians and specialists from renowned hospitals and organizations. Attendees can even partake in special Disneyland Resort character photo opportunities throughout the weekend. For more information in the event schedule, visit the website here.

Each attendee who purchases a Disneyland park ticket through the Epilepsy Awareness Day website will receive a Participation Pack, which includes an event t-shirt, lunch bag cooler, commemorative magnet, and other souvenirs. Disneyland annual passholders who participate in the event can donate $25 to receive a Participation Pack. Disneyland park tickets for this event will be sold through Saturday, November 3.

Announcing the 2018 Post-Traumatic Epilepsy Initiative Grantees

Announcing the grant recipients in CURE’s Post-Traumatic Epilepsy Initiative! Read about this team’s innovative projects below:

Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a frequent and debilitating complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Over 40% of combat troops who suffer severe TBI will develop PTE.

Having secured a $10 million grant from the US Department of Defense, CURE has launched an unprecedented Post-Traumatic Epilepsy Initiative. This initiative is a team science, multi-disciplinary program that will expand the knowledge around the types of injuries that predispose the brain to epilepsy, as well as a develop new models to study epilepsy that results from injury.

Meet CURE’s pioneering Post-Traumatic Epilepsy Initiative team:

Victoria E. Johnson, MBChB, PhD

University of Pennsylvania

Dr. Johnson will characterize the relationship between the detrimental neural changes which can follow TBI and the development of PTE. These changes include chronic leakage of the blood-brain barrier, neuronal degeneration, and gliosis. The research team will utilize tissue from humans following TBI, as well as novel models of TBI.

Learn More

Harald Sontheimer, PhD

Virginia Tech

Dr. Sontheimer and his team of collaborators have identified the need for additional animal models of PTE. The team’s hope is that identifying alternative animal models will lead to the discovery of new PTE biomarkers and, eventually, to novel treatments. To identify new animal models, Dr. Sontheimer’s team plans to investigate how TBI leads to PTE in a new mouse model compared to an established one.

Learn More

Kevin Staley, MD

Harvard Medical School

Dr. Staley will test if changes in the brain’s neuronal support system after TBI alter the balance of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. His team is also set to explore why PTE following TBI is often difficult to treat. Using highly innovative imaging techniques, Dr. Staley aims to provide new insight into how PTE develops and new methods to identify high-risk patients.

Learn More

Kevin Wang, PhD

University of Florida

Dr. Wang has developed a robust rat model of penetrating TBI to understand how this type of injury can lead to PTE. His team will compare rats that develop PTE to those that do not. The goal is to uncover the unique chemical and molecular processes which lead to PTE following a penetrating TBI. These findings could provide new areas of focus and potential biomarkers for developing treatments.

Learn More

Day of Science

CURE Update: Spread Epilepsy Awareness Online and In-Person

Coming soon: November is Epilepsy Awareness Month. By participating in events online and in-person, you can spread awareness about the critical need for epilepsy research.

Ahead of Epilepsy Awareness Month, let your friends and family know how important epilepsy research is by taking part in social media campaigns, such as SUDEP Action Day. Or, attend in-person events such as Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland Resort and CURE’s Day of Science in Raleigh-Durham and Miami.

Also in this update…

Best regards,

Dr. Laura Lubbers, PhD

Laura S. Lubbers, PhD

Spread the Word About the Critical Need for Research on SUDEP Action Day

SUDEP Action DaySUDEP Action Day on October 23 strives to raise awareness worldwide about Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy. SUDEP occurs when a seemingly healthy person with epilepsy dies for no known, obvious reason and is perhaps the most devastating possible consequence of epilepsy.

Funding research to discover what causes SUDEP is vital to preventing it. Be a part of a growing movement driving research, awareness, advocacy, and increased funding to tackle this problem.

Learn How to Get Involved

Discover the Real Risks and Benefits of Cannabidiol During a Free Webinar

The uses and risks of treating epilepsy with cannabidiol (CBD) has been a controversial yet exciting discussion in the epilepsy community. Discover what the latest research says about epilepsy and CBD in our upcoming webinar Cannabidiol and Epilepsy: The Real Risks and Benefits on Wednesday, October 24 at 1:00PM CT.

This webinar explores why CBD can be an effective treatment for certain types of epilepsy, what risks are associated with CBD, and what the FDA approval of the CBD-based drug Epidiolex means for the future of epilepsy research and treatment.

Pediatric neurologist Anup D. Patel, MD, will lead the presentation and address your questions in a live Q&A. You can ask Dr. Patel questions, such as:

  • Are all CBD products effective for the treatment of epilepsy?
  • What side effects can result from taking CBD products, such as Epidiolex?
  • Could CBD make my seizures worse?

Learn More or Sign-Up Now

Enter to Win A Mind Unraveled, a Memoir by New York Times Bestselling Author Kurt Eichenwald

A Mind UnraveledIn A Mind Unraveled, Kurt Eichenwald tells his raw and inspirational story about pursuing dreams while living with uncontrolled epilepsy.

Stigma and ignorance about epilepsy among medical professionals, school administrators, and employers threatened Eichenwald’s physical and emotional well-being for decades. In this memoir, Eichenwald details how he used these challenges to create a guide for reaching the future he desired.

A Mind Unraveled is available for preorder and hits shelves on October 16, but you can enter now to win a free copy.

A Mind Unraveled left me overwhelmed and speechless. Eichenwald’s story is breathtaking: devastation and inspiration all under one cover.” – Susan Axelrod, Founder, CURE

Enter to Win or Preorder Now

Day of Science is coming to Raleigh-Durham and Miami!

Day of Science

At CURE’s Day of Science in Raleigh-Durhamand Miami, leading experts answer your questions about epilepsy.

These free events give those impacted by epilepsy and their families the chance to learn from researchers and local physicians in an encouraging environment.

At Day of Science, a panel of epilepsy experts address audience questions and participate in small-group discussions over lunch with the attendees.

When you join us at Day of Science, you can ask questions, such as:

  • What targeted treatments have been developed due to the discovery of new epilepsy genes?
  • What are some of the breakthrough therapies for pediatric patients, including those with infantile spasms?
  • What are the risks associated with epilepsy surgery?

Register now for Day of Science in Raleigh-Durham or Miami.

Join Us for Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland Resort

Let’s paint Disneyland purple at the 6th Annual Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland Resort! This family-friendly event on November 5-7 unites epilepsy patients, families, doctors, researchers, and organizations.

On November 5 and 6, join us at the expo where you can get access to epilepsy resources while learning about new treatment options and devices. On November 7, head to Disneyland Park to enjoy the rides, build lasting friendships, and spread epilepsy awareness.

CURE has something super planned for this event – stay tuned for details!

Learn More or Register Now

Preview of Spectacular Online Auction Items to Support Epilepsy Research!

The online auction for CURE’s 20th Annual Chicago Benefit opens on October 9. This auction features exclusive items, such as:

  • An E-Street Band signed guitar with 2 tickets to the sold-out Springsteen on Broadway show
  • An Eddie Vedder signed guitar
  • A Paul Simon personalized and signed guitar
  • A James Taylor signed guitar

Stay tuned to learn how to place your bid on October 9!

Next CURE Events

The Hidden Truths Project’s 7th Annual 1:26 The Art of Epilepsy in Chicago – October 14

CURE’s 20th Annual Chicago Benefit – October 15

Webinar on Cannabidiol and Epilepsy: The Real Risks and Benefits – October 24

Day of Science in Raleigh-Durham – October 27

Day of Science in Miami – November 3

CURE Update: Explore Epilepsy Research at Webinars and Events

You may have heard about the FDA’s landmark approval of Epidiolex, an epilepsy treatment which is over 98% cannabidiol (CBD). While CBD is a compound found in marijuana, it does not have psychoactive effects.

Since this approval, clinicians and patients have been asking great questions about how cannabidiol works to treat epilepsy and what risks may accompany its use.

An upcoming CURE webinar addresses the benefits and risks of using CBD to treat epilepsy. We’re excited to share what the latest research says and answer your questions about CBD and epilepsy. You can learn more about the webinar in this update. I hope you can join us to explore this fascinating topic.

Also in this update…

I hope you’re having a great summer,
Laura S. Lubbers, PhD

Free Webinars on CBD & Epilepsy and The New Way to Describe Your Seizure Type 
Curious how cannabidiol (CBD) can be harnessed to treat epilepsy? Discover what the latest research says in our upcoming webinar Cannabidiol and Epilepsy: The Real Risks and Benefits on Wednesday, October 24, at 1:00PM CT.

In this webinar, you will learn why CBD may be an effective treatment for certain types of epilepsy, the risks associated with CBD, and what the FDA approval of the CBD-based drug Epidiolex means for the future of epilepsy research and treatment.

Pediatric neurologist Anup D. Patel, MD, will lead the presentation and address your questions in a live Q&A.

Susan And David Axelrod Join Leaders In Innovation Dinner

Frustrated with the inability to protect her child from the devastation of uncontrollable seizures and the side effects of medications, Susan Axelrod joined forces with two other concerned parents to spearhead the search for a cure for epilepsy. Axelrod became the Founding Chair of Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE), and along with her husband David Axelrod has raised more than $43 million to fund research grants around the world.

On Nov. 19, Susan and David Axelrod will join scientists, researchers and community members for the 2018 Leaders in Innovation Dinner hosted by Robarts Research Institute. This year’s dinner celebrates research excellence in the field of epilepsy.

Hari Ravichandran Launches Foundation With Inaugural Gift To Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE)

$150,000 Commitment in Support of 20th Annual Benefit and ‘Taking Flight’ Research Award

BOSTON, MA (August 16, 2018) – Hari Ravichandran, the CEO and Founder of Jump Ventures, a scalability infusion firm, today launched the Ravichandran Foundation by announcing its first financial commitment of $150,000 to benefit Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) and their initiatives to find a cure for epilepsy.

For 20 years, CURE has been at the forefront of the dramatic shift in the epilepsy research community from simply treating seizures to enhancing understanding of underlying mechanisms and causes, so that cures and preventative strategies can be found. CURE’s research program is cutting-edge, dynamic and responsive to new scientific opportunities and directions through both investigator-initiated grants and unprecedented scientific programs and initiatives.

“The Ravichandran Foundation is dedicated to ensuring we make meaningful contributions that enable the communities where we live and work to thrive by improving health, promoting education and empowering youth locally and globally,” said Hari Ravichandran. “Our goal is to make contributions that also leave a legacy of positive social impact. I can’t think of a better way to do that, than by supporting the efforts of young researchers and their mission to find a cure for epilepsy.”

The Ravichandran gift will directly support CURE’s ‘Taking Flight’ research award which facilitates a promising epilepsy research project and promotes the career of a young epilepsy investigator, allowing them to develop a research focus independent of their mentor(s).

“As CURE prepares to recognize the advancements made by epilepsy researchers over the past 20 years, I’m reminded that many of them were initially recipients of a CURE Taking Flight Award. So, I’m very grateful to Hari for his generosity and foresight in funding a next generation researcher whose research could be groundbreaking. Funding young researchers inspires them to devote their careers to studying epilepsy and is crucial to our pipeline of emerging discoveries,” said CURE founder Susan Axelrod.

This contribution will also sponsor CURE’s 20th Annual Benefit, which will be held in Chicago on October 15, 2018 at Navy Pier.  The CURE Benefit will showcase the organization’s 20 years of impact and emerging discoveries.

Based in Boston, Massachusetts, the Ravichandran Foundation is a philanthropic organization founded by Hari Ravichandran, a technology entrepreneur and the CEO and Founder of Jump Ventures, a scalability infusion firm. The foundation is committed to improving health, promoting education and empowering youth locally and globally. For more information visit: www.ravichandranfoundation.org.

The mission of Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) is to find a cure for epilepsy, by promoting and funding patient-focused research.  Since its inception in 1998, CURE has raised over $50 million to advance its goal of no seizures and no side effects. To date, CURE has awarded more than 220 cutting-edge research projects in 15 countries around the world. CURE is the leading non-governmental agency fully committed to funding research in epilepsy. For information about CURE, please visit our website at: www.CUREepilepsy.org or contact us at: info@CUREepilepsy.org.

# # #

Lark-Marie Anton
Ravichandran Foundation  
(781) 552-3259

Michael Organ
(312) 255-1801

CURE Update: Opportunities to Learn More About Epilepsy

CURE has expanded opportunities for you to learn about epilepsy and the latest epilepsy research.

In September, the next stop for CURE’s Day of Science is Los Angeles, giving those impacted by epilepsy and their families the chance to get their questions answered by local physicians in an encouraging environment. You can read more about Day of Science events in this update.

In addition, our free online webinar series continues to explore research and clinical insights, with this month’s webinar focusing on Anxiety and Depression Associated with Epilepsy. The webinar discusses how these conditions impact the daily lives of people with epilepsy, including how anxiety and depression can negatively affect their current medications. The presentation also offers strategies for better coping with stress.

Also in this update…

  • CURE Champion Spotlight: Dr. Julie Thompson-Dobkin Brings Artists Together to Fight Stigma and Raise Funds for Research
  • Support Epilepsy Research Every Month by Becoming a Monthly Donor
  • Save the Date: 20th Annual Chicago Benefit on October 15, 2018
  • Next CURE Events

I hope you’re having a great summer,
Laura S. Lubbers, PhD

Free Webinar on Anxiety and Depression Associated with Epilepsy

If you or a loved one struggle with epilepsy as well as a mood disorder, we invite you to join an online, educational webinar about Anxiety and Depression Associated with Epilepsy on Tuesday, August 14 at 12:00PM CT.

Dr. Andres M. Kanner, a leading expert on epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, discusses how anxiety and depression in people with epilepsy negatively impacts quality of life, reduces tolerance of antiepileptic medications, and increases the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. The presentation also reviews how stress affects epileptic seizures and offers strategies patients can use to better cope with stress.

During a live Q&A session with Dr. Kanner, you can ask questions, such as:

  • What methods can I use to lower stress and anxiety that could potentially trigger seizures?
  • How do I know if my depression is linked to my epilepsy or my medications?
  • Are anxiety and depression symptoms dependent upon seizure-type? Age of epilepsy onset?