This month’s round-up of epilepsy news features an announcement about a new antiepileptic rescue medication, NAYZILAM®. This therapy is the first FDA-approved nasal treatment option for people with epilepsy who experience episodes of frequent seizure activity.
We also highlight many research advances, from the discovery of a compound found in fruit and honey which can inhibit seizures to the development of a new drug to treat Dravet syndrome. Research in the cannabidiol (CBD) space has also advanced, with the creation of a synthetic form of CBD which may be easier to purify and does not need to be cultivated from hemp plants.
In more sobering news, reports over the past month show that one-third of epilepsy cases go without appropriate treatment for up to three years following diagnosis. In addition, people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) as well as epileptic seizures may be at a higher risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP)during the years immediately following diagnosis with PNES.
Summaries of all highlighted studies follow below. I’ve organized the findings into three categories: Treatment Advances, Research Discoveries, and Also Notable.
FDA Approves NAYZILAM® Nasal Spray to Treat Intermittent, Stereotypic Episodes of Frequent Seizure Activity in People Living with Epilepsy in the US
The FDA has approved a New Drug Application for UCB’s newest antiepileptic drug NAYZILAM® (midazolam) nasal spray. This therapy is a benzodiazepine indicated for the acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (i.e., seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) distinct from a patient’s usual seizure pattern in individuals with epilepsy who are 12 years of age and older.
Study Advances More Effective Laser Ablation and Standard Epilepsy Surgery
In the largest study of its kind to date, researchers across 11 centers analyzed data on a relatively new minimally invasive alternative surgery for epilepsy. These researchers discovered changes that could make the procedure more effective in both laser ablation and standard surgery.
Brain Network Activity can Improve in Epilepsy Patients after Surgery
Successful epilepsy surgery can improve brain connectivity similar to patterns seen in people without epilepsy, according to a new study published in the journal Neurosurgery. The study of 15 people with temporal lobe epilepsy is the first to show improvements in brain networks after surgery compared to a group of healthy subjects.
New Drug Could Help Treat Neonatal Seizures
A new drug that inhibits neonatal seizures in rodent models could open new avenues for epilepsy treatment in human newborns. Researchers have found that gluconate—a small organic compound found in fruit and honey—acts as an anticonvulsant, inhibiting seizures by targeting the activity of channels that control the flow of chloride ions in and out of neonatal neurons.
Research Looks to Halt Stress-Induced Seizures Following Brain Injury
The likelihood of developing epilepsy increases significantly with a traumatic brain injury. Stress and anxiety increase that likelihood even more dramatically. Researchers have been able to demonstrate that an injured brain responds differently to stress hormones than a healthy brain. The research team showed abnormal electrical activity in the brain tied to these stress-induced seizures and, most importantly, found a way to stop this activity from occurring.
Synthetic Version of Cannabidiol (CBD) Treats Seizures in Rats
A synthetic, non-intoxicating analogue of CBD was found to be effective for treating seizures in rats. Researchers note the synthetic CBD alternative is easier to purify than a plant extract, eliminates the need to use agricultural land for hemp cultivation, and could avoid legal complications associated with cannabis-related products.
AZD7325 Has Seizure-Protective Effect in Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome, Study Says
Treatment with AZD7325, a compound that stimulates an inhibitory receptor in the brain, has a seizure-protective effect in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome. This treatment significantly increased the temperature threshold animals could withstand without experiencing any seizures during a hyperthermia-induced seizure test.
Children’s Brains Reorganize after Epilepsy Surgery to Retain Visual Perception
Children can keep their full ability to process and understand visual information after brain surgery for severe epilepsy, according to a study funded by the National Eye Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. This new report from a study of children who underwent epilepsy surgery and suggests that the lasting effects on visual perception can be minimal, even among children who lost tissue in the brain’s visual centers.
One-Third of Epilepsy Cases Go Untreated up to 3 Years After Diagnosis
A small yet substantial subset of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy go without appropriate treatment approximately 3 years after diagnosis. This gap in treatment may be increasing the risk for medical events and hospitalization in these patients.
Study Suggests ‘High Risk Period’ for SUDEP for People with Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures in Addition to Epileptic Seizures
Findings of a recently published study suggest that patients with comorbid epileptic seizures (ES) and Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES) can die from SUDEP and that there may be a high?risk period after the diagnosis of PNES is made. The authors state such patients should be closely monitored and provided with coordinated care of both their epilepsy and psychiatric disorder(s).
Fralin Biomedical Research Institute Neuroscientist Awarded Grant to Study Epilepsy
Featuring CURE Grantee Dr. Sharon Swanger
Dr. Sharon Swanger of the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute was recently awarded a $1.7 million grant through the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke to study the role of glutamate receptors in the thalamus – an area of the brain involved in seizure generation. “If we can figure out how each [receptor] subtype functions and modulate select subtypes, then maybe we can target therapies to the circuit where the disease originated while leaving healthy circuits intact,” said Dr. Swanger.
Tool Helps GPs Predict Risk of Seizures in Pregnancy
Doctors, midwives, and others can use a new risk calculator to identify those pregnant women at high-risk of seizures and to plan early referral for specialist input. The specialist could determine the need for close monitoring in pregnancy, labor, and after birth, and assess antiepileptic drug management, according to new research in PLOS Medicine. The study authors added that the model’s performance is unlikely to vary with the antiepilepsy drug dose management strategy – and that it could save maternal and infant lives.
Development of Epilepsy Prediction Device to Improve Independence for People with Epilepsy
The University of Sydney’s Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies is developing a system, NeuroSyd, which aims at real-time monitoring and processing of brain-signals while driving in a group of people living with epilepsy. NeuroSyd will be developed to deliver an early warning of the likelihood of an epileptic seizure.
Pfizer’s Lyrica at Doses 5mg and 10mg Fails Phase 3 Trial in Epilepsy
Pfizer’s Lyrica has failed to meet its primary endpoint in a phase 3 trial in primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures. The study evaluated two doses of the drug – 5 mg and 10 mg – over a period of 12 weeks. Treatment with the drug did not result in a statistically significant reduction in seizure frequency versus placebo. Another phase 3 trial in May 2018 was successful, showing that a 14 mg dose of Lyrica resulted in a statistically significant reduction in seizure frequency versus placebo.