Webinar: The ABCs of EEGs: An Evolving Tool for Epilepsy Diagnosis

This webinar explores the intricacies and advancements in a well-known diagnostic tool; an EEG.

An electroencephalogram – better known as an EEG – is a test that records electrical brain patterns from the scalp. EEGs are critical for the diagnosis of epilepsy and other neurological conditions. While this diagnostic tool has been available for nearly a century, there have been great advances in the portability and signal detection properties.

This webinar discusses how epilepsy patients have benefited from advances in EEG technology, and the role of the EEG and other neuroimaging tools in the future of epilepsy diagnosis and seizure localization.

This webinar is presented by Dr. David Burdette, Epilepsy Section Chief for Spectrum Health Medical Group in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He has been at the forefront of EEG education having served on the American Board of EEG Technologists (ABRET) and the LAB-EEG board of the American Board of EEG Technologists (ABRET).  Dr. Burdette’s clinical interests include neurotelemetry, long-term EEG trending, treatment of refractory epilepsy, treatment of status epilepticus, and electroencephalography.


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Dr. David BurdetteAudience Q&A with Dr. Burdette

How often should a patient get an EEG if a past EEG was abnormal? At what point do you elect to have a 24 hour versus a 60 minute sleep-deprived EEG?

That is an interesting question, for which there’s not necessarily a right answer or a wrong answer. First, a question: why do people get EEGs? If someone has what I would consider a prototypical seizure…. The old expression goes, “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it’s probably a duck.” And if someone has seizures that walk and quack like seizures, it’s probably seizures. And if they walk and quack like a focal seizure (what we used to call a partial seizure), then I’m going to treat it as a partial seizure. I may not even need an EEG to do that.

I’ll get an EEG, just a one off type EEG, to make sure I’m not just totally out to lunch. But that EEG may end up being normal, even though that person is probably still have seizures. So, if a patient responds to the first medication I prescribe, as arguably 47% of people do, then that’s great. There is no compelling reason in my mind to repeat that EEG. If that person doesn’t respond to the first medication, I’ll usually have a plan B, so we’ll try the plan B. If that doesn’t work, I need more information.

I need to get some insight into how a person who hasn’t responded to the second medication is doing, so I may get a sleep deprived EEG or a two hour long EEG, so that way I can see those brain waves when they’re awake, drowsy, and asleep. Often times we need that sleep in order to really see the rhythmicity of the brain and for me to figure out, “Ah I was wrong. It was walking and quacking like a partial seizure, but in fact it was a generalized seizure and I chose the wrong medication.” Ideally that doesn’t happen, but it could. So, in that instance, I would get a sleep deprived EEG or I might get an ambulatory EEG so that over 24-48 hours, I can see that waking, drowsy sleep rhythmicity and see what’s going on.

If the individual still has seizures or the EEGs are unhelpful, then I will have the person come into the epilepsy monitoring unit. The place in the hospital where the healthiest people are, and we bring them in, it’s the one time in your life we want you to have a seizure, so we crash the person off their medications, sleep deprive them every other night, and ideally record a seizure.

That being said, in children there are many genetic forms of epilepsy which may appear in childhood and be outgrown later in life. In this case, serial EEGs are necessary to identify that progression.

Regarding the rhythms you showed at the end of the presentation, are those patterns in patients with epilepsy only or do healthy patients have similar multi-day rhythms?

There will be an element of speculation to my answer because we don’t know. But I don’t think it’s too much of a leap of faith to say that multi-day variation, the diurnal variation we tend to see in seizures,  is being driven by a rhythm that is intrinsic to the brain itself. So in essence, the likelihood is that, seizures or no seizures, epilepsy or no epilepsy, we all have those rhythms. How they manifest though is difficult to say unless you have seizures.

Can you explain the subclinical seizures and EEG signatures called PLEDs, burst, and birds? This is a very detailed question about these different signatures.

Seizures are typically divided into “generalized seizures,” in which one second the brain is fine and then the next second both hemispheres are seizing, and “focal seizures,” in which seizures begin in a specific area of the brain. You’ve probably heard this notion that we only use ten percent of our brain. If we could use 90% we could do telekinesis, we could do whatever. Who knows, maybe people could develop telekinesis, I wouldn’t know. But I do know that we use our entire brains. A PET scan will light up the glucose metabolism the brain cells that are working, and we know that the whole brain lights up.

We’re using all of our brain, but we can only define what 10% of the brain does. When I do brain mapping on someone in anticipation of epilepsy surgery, in 90% of the parts of the brain I map, I can’t identify anything that happens when I stimulate it. Further, the person with epilepsy cannot identify that I’ve done anything. So, 10% of the brain is what we call “eloquent.”

If you have a seizure in eloquent cortex, it’s going to cause a symptom. If you have a seizure in a part of the brain that activates if you heard an oncoming train, then your seizure will cause an auditory hallucination of an oncoming train. But for other 90% of the brain, if the seizure starts there and stays focally there, then there’s a reasonable chance you’re going to have no symptoms. We would call that a “subclinical seizure.” In this case, we can see it on the EEG, particularly if we’re recording from directly within the brain itself. A seizure is happening, but it is subclinical – it’s causing no symptoms.

With PLEDs or LPEDs – we change the name sometimes but it’s the same phenomenon – this is a sign of an excited brain. If either some badness happens to the brain, a stroke for instance, then the area around the stroke will have excessive excitability. Or, if someone has known epilepsy and they go into status epilepticus – one seizure after another after another – the excitability of the brain really goes up in that area. The end result of this happening is that the brain keeps pushing toward a seizure, causing a burst of activity that shuts down that part of the brain for a second as it recovers, and then it happens again, boom, and then it shuts it down, and then boom…. Seizures during status epilepticus are periodic, like a metronome: fires, fires, fires, fires, it’s lateralized, it’s over one half of the brain, epileptic form discharges. So these are boom, boom, boom. This state is highly epileptogenic, but it is transient. So once you correct whatever is the underlying issue, it should resolve.

Bursts are a more descriptive term. In that case the brain is going about its business, then there’s a burst of activity, kind of like we saw earlier in my presentation where it’s burst, suppression, burst, suppression. So that is a descriptive term applied to any sudden outpouring of electrical activity within the brain. We will see bursts in a broad array of clinical situations from burst suppression to various epileptic or epilepsy related phenomena, and they are in essence this large outpouring of synchronous brain activity.

And then the final term, birds, has been applied in a few ways, but these are these brief, rhythmic discharges that are not quite seizures, but show a strong tendency towards seizures. This is a term most commonly used in neonatal EEGs. In adults, I see the brain waves going along, I see a burst of activity, looks like a spike, we call it a spike.

In the neonatal brain, development is happening really fast. Newborns get these spikes all the time and they can be normal. To differentiate abnormal bursts of activity, we use various terms to describe he specific kinds of spikes. If you see those spikes but they’re rhythmic and they last a certain period of time, then that is more worrisome for seizures. So that is most commonly how birds are used.

How sensitive are ambulatory EEGs? Is there a difference in the ability to pick up seizures between ambulatory versus in patient monitoring?

Ambulatory is more sensitive than a routine EEG. A routine EEG lasts 20 to 30 minutes. What are the odds that we’re going to pick up some abnormality in 20 to 30 minutes? It depends how active someone’s seizures are. If they’re having a seizure every five minutes, we’ll probably pick it up in a 30 minute EEG. Most people, however, are not having seizures as often as that. Most people have more widely dispersed seizures and therefore, by extension, more widely dispersed abnormal bursts of activity associated with seizures.

The longer we can record an EEG, the greater our likelihood of coming up with an answer to better inform our treatment options. A 20 to 30 minute EEG gives us some information. A 24 hour EEG gives us much more information, because we see those brainwaves in wakefulness, drowsiness, stages one, two, three, four, and REM sleep. The next step is being admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit. If you go into an epilepsy monitoring unit and there are no medication changes made, you might as well have it done at home, because you’re less restricted at home.

But typically what we do in the epilepsy monitoring unit is evaluate situations when the ambulatory EEG didn’t give us the answers we needed. The in-patient epilepsy monitoring unit EEG allows us to take you off of medications, not necessarily to induce a seizure, but to remove your protection from seizures, so that we can record an actual seizure. That would be dangerous to do in many situations at home because there are risks of having multiple seizures. You could go into status epilepticus, you could (god forbid) have Sudden Unexpected Death from Epilepsy – it’s a scary situation. But in the hospital, it’s a monitored situation. An EEG tech is watching the screen 24-7 and when a seizure happens, they push a button, nurses come running, and they give medications to abort the seizure.

That’s the main difference – for an ambulatory EEG you’re probably on medication, and in the epilepsy monitoring unit we’re taking away the medication.

How do I know if my doctor knows the latest information about performing an EEG? Are there any questions I can ask?

I would ask if they have done an EEG or epilepsy fellowship. When someone goes into training in neurology, they do their internship right out of medical school. During that time, they get some basic training and learn more about treating patients with various maladies. Then they do a neurology residency, and focus on just brain-, spinal cord-, nerve-, and muscle-related issues. Part of that training is learning some basics of EEG, and learning the basics of taking care of a broad range of issues from Parkinson’s disease to tremors, to peripheral neuropathy to epilepsy.

Typically after someone develops seizures they will start with seeing a neurologist. And frankly, the majority of people do very well with seeing a neurologist. If, however, a person continues to have seizures, then it is time to move it up a notch. And that next notch takes the form of neurologists who did extra training for one or two years in either clinical neurophysiology, EEG, or in epilepsy (which also includes an EEG component). That by itself means that person is going to have a greater level of comfort and more in-depth knowledge of seizures and epilepsy.

In addition, you can check if your provider is board certified. Board certification will establish that a person has a minimal amount of knowledge. It doesn’t say that they’re the greatest thing since skim milk, but it assures to some degree a minimum level of competence. I tend to check if my doctor is board certified in the area in which I am seeking their opinion. That being said, some of the best epileptologists I know have never taken a board exam. Because you don’t have to take a board exam to practice in epilepsy.

If your seizures are well controlled, and by well controlled I mean you are seizure free, then your general neurologist is more than adequately capable of taking care of you. If you are still having seizures – once a month, a week, a day, a year – and adjustments are not effective, then it is time to seek the opinion of a specialist, who has done that extra training.

If that doesn’t work out, you kick it up a notch and you see someone who is in an NAEC level four epilepsy center. So that’s the National Association of Epilepsy Centers. They have a certification process whereby they evaluate who the epileptologists are, the neuropsychologists, the nurse practitioners, the entire epilepsy team, and determine if they have all of the credentials that indicate them to be highly competent in their field. If they do, those individuals will get a level three or level four (the highest level) designation. And if you’re having ongoing seizures and have tried multiple approaches, then ultimately you want to end up at an NAEC level four center.


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.

Webinar: Rescue Medication Delivery Methods and Future Therapies

Seizures can be both unpredictable and unrelenting. When a seizure becomes an emergency, rescue medications provide immediate relief and help prevent the need for emergency care. While existing therapies do stop these epilepsy emergencies in many patients, some are still searching for an option that works for them.

In the second part of this two-part webinar series, gain insight from Dr. Nathan Fountain of the University of Virginia on how different rescue medications can be administered, promising research, and what rescue therapies are currently in the pipeline. His presentation includes a look at the rescue medication pipeline and the new delivery methods which may become available to patients.

Dr. Nathan Fountain, Professor of Neurology and the Director of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at the University of Virginia.


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Audience Q&A with Dr. Fountain

Dr. Nathan FountainIs there any reason not to use Diastat before a seizure in a child who has been seizing for five minutes? And if so, how long should you wait?

There are exceptions to every single rule. As a general principle, if you’ve been prescribed rectal diazepam gel to stop seizures, and you have – let’s say – a child who’s been seizing for five minutes, there’d be few situations in which you wouldn’t give them the rectal diazepam gel. There’s a safety concern, and there’s a treatment concern in this circumstance.

The safety concern is; imagine that you’ve already given the child other benzodiazepines, let’s say clonazepam or lorazepam, or even diazepam in a pill form an hour ago. And so, it’s already in their blood. You might be hesitant to give them more without any kind of supervision. But as a general principle, we give rescue medications and tell them, “If you actually time a seizure, five minutes is a really long time.” We do this in the epilepsy monitoring unit. We admit people to the hospital and observe their seizures to figure out where they’re coming from and so forth.

A common exercise is to ask people when we watched the seizure on the video, “How long was that?” And they almost always say, “Oh, that was five minutes.” But you know what? It’s almost always under 90 seconds – a minute and a half. The point: while you’re watching someone seize for five minutes, it’s kind of forever, especially the big convulsive seizure. For convulsive seizures or medically serious seizures, you might say, usually we would advise giving the medicine after five minutes of seizure activity.

Now, if it’s a non convulsive seizure, or if you’re not sure it’s a seizure, that’s a different situation. I suppose we could imagine a situation where you wouldn’t give them medicine. It was in five minutes because it’s a non-convulsive seizure and you think it’s not causing any harm. Let’s say it’s just a staring seizure, an absence seizure. It is unusual to have one for more than five minutes, but there are specific situations when you might. Or if you’re not sure that it’s a seizure, so if you haven’t figured that out yet, then maybe it would be okay to not give the medicine if it’s something, as in, convulsive activity.

Are there any reasons to administer rescue medications to individuals who have one tonic clonic seizure without a cluster?

That goes back to really defining what it means to have a cluster. As a casual observation, we can easily make the statement, “Sure. Give the medicine to prevent the next seizure.” But if you think about this in detail as the FDA does when they think about exactly what the medicine is used for, this starts with a careful history to determine what is a typical seizure for that individual.

If that individual has big convulsive grand mal or generalized tonic clonic seizures typically lasting three minutes, but they suddenly have three in one day or even twice in one day and you want to prevent the next seizure. Usually you’d let that seizure complete because it would almost take three minutes just to administer whatever you’re going to administer. Typically, we’d let that seizure complete itself, then give whatever medicine is appropriate to prevent the next seizure.

I’m glad that question was asked because in general, we wouldn’t treat an acute seizure unless it lasted more longer than usual or more than five minutes. Now, as I said, five minutes is a long time. By three minutes, everybody’s getting all excited and getting ready to do something – call the rescue squad or given a board of therapy or do something – because it will take your five minutes to figure all that out. But for most people with epilepsy, they don’t have a seizure that lasts longer than three minutes. In fact, if you measure it, it’s usually less than 90 seconds and a half.

If you define the typical seizures as less than five minutes, we typically wouldn’t recommend the currently available abortive therapies. Maybe that’ll change. Maybe if it turns out intranasal medications really worked very quickly and are very effective and maybe we’ll get for ongoing seizures, but at the moment we would say no.

Do you have any suggestions for rescue therapies in children younger than two,  because the FDA approved cutoff for Diastat is two years old.

That’s a situation where you really need to talk to your doctor. There are alternatives. Everyone gets nervous when treating young children. When they’re less than two, it gets a little complicated because the dosing changes as well as the method of administration.

I’d say talk to your doctor about that. For a prolonged seizure in those who are less than two years old, we have the same concerns that we have in those older than two. Although the medications are only approved down to a certain age, doctors can use them in different situations. For example, the IV form of midazolam is definitely not approved to be blown up the nose until now. Still the IV form is not, but yet we would use that in certain situations when we knew the details warranted it. Being less than two, you could still use rectal Diastat for instance, or could use some other form.

Talk to your doctor about that and what might be best in that particular situation.


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.

A doctor goes over medical information with his patient.

Webinar: Epilepsy Emergencies and Current Rescue Medications

Seizures can be both unpredictable and unrelenting. When a seizure becomes an emergency, rescue medications provide immediate relief and help prevent the need for emergency care. While existing therapies do stop these epilepsy emergencies in many patients, some are still searching for an option that works for them.

In this webinar, Dr. Kamil Detyniecki of the University of Miami provides an overview of the different types of seizure emergencies, while also discussing the currently available rescue medications.

View our follow-up webinar on the latest advances in rescue medications.


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Dr. Kamil DetynieckiAre these medications combined with other treatments or solo treatments?

These medications are not supposed to replace the daily antiepileptic medications that you take. These are only to be used in situations of emergencies. When you are prescribed a rescue therapy, you continue taking your daily medications. Rescue meds are extra protection in case of a situation that requires treatment.

Are there differences in effectiveness between the different delivery methods of rescue medications such as buccal or nasal or…

The important thing is that these medications get to the system as fast as possible. There are not good studies comparing one to another, because it’s very hard to make a study like that unbiased and blinded (a blinded study is one in which the participants don’t know if they are taking a placebo or not). But there have been some studies comparing rectal diazepam with nasal midazolam, and they seem to be compatible.

During your presentation, you mentioned the side effects of some of the rescue medications. Does delivery method affect these side effects?

Yes, absolutely. So as I mentioned, the nasal administration has the potential for irritation in the nose. That’s one type of side effect. In addition, medications have different half lives, which means they may stay in your system for different lengths of time. For example, diazepam stays in your system longer. After taking it, the effect of sedation may last for a longer time than midazolam. In some patients this may be beneficial, because there maybe longer lasting protection. So one may be better for one patient then versus others.

Is current research suggesting that rescue medications, such as Nayzilam, will be effective?

Yeah, absolutely. For the nasal midazolam, there was a large, multicenter study comparing this medication with placebo. This study showed that the nasal midazolam was much more effective than using the dummy medication. That’s what we use and that’s what the FDA used to approve this medication.

When is a patient considered to be in status epilepticus? Does the length of time vary between children and adults?

Definitions have this problem that they’re never perfect and this is what we have right now. And I think that, again, in terms of when to treat, it’s different. One definition may say that status epilepticus is five minutes, but this doesn’t mean that we need to wait five minutes in order to start treatment.

That is what has been shown based on animal and human data; if a seizure goes for five minutes or longer, there’s a less likelihood that it will stop on its own. For some patients, if a seizure is one, two minutes long, it may be too long for them. Every patient is different, but not aware of any that we’re changing that definition.

What would you say to say school teachers or school personnel who refuse to administer a rectal medications?

There’s been a lot of debate about having the school administer those medications. I think that the problem with the rectal administration maybe resolved now that we have nasal. Again, rectal is troublesome in patients’ privacy. But now that we have the option of nasal, hopefully that won’t be a problem.

Can diastat be given twice at one time if the seizures persist after the first dose ? Or do you have to wait a certain period of time between doses?

Typically the dose is calculated by weight. There is a possibility of giving another dose, but I would normally wait at least 10 minutes or more to know if the first dose had an effect. We have to always assess whether the patient may be overly sedated, having any difficulty breathing, etc. But those discussions about the dose need to be specifically addressed with with the neurologist. I can’t give you an answer for everyone.

But to answer shortly. Yes. In some patients, we can.

Is there an average length for how long it takes a rescue medication to take effect?

Yes. And really it depends on the type of rescue medications. Oral medications can take much longer. That’s why we’re so excited to have different routes of administration. If you swallow a pill, it may take 20 minutes or more to start working. A convulsion going on for a long time, it’s unacceptable.

Nasal may work as fast as 10 minutes, and there are new medications that are being searched in and are being researched that may work even faster as fast as IV. So there’s different times depending on the type on the medication and the route of administration. But the fastest we have right now are the rectal and the nasal.

What are the differences between Versed and Nayzilam?

The active compound is the same. Versed is the brand name of midazolam, which is the same compound which in this brand name Nayzilam. The main difference is that when you use the off label midazolam, like I showed this picture of this young kid getting the Versed with a syringe or a spray. That is because we’re using a product that is being developed for IV, it’s very diluted. You need to use much more volume or much more amount of liquid that it actually doesn’t all get absorbed in the drips behind the nose, so it’s not ideal.

This product that was FDA approved, Nayzilam, is a much smaller concentration, so it’s just one dose, and so that is an improvement compared to the off label, but the actual medication that is being used is the same.

If you can use the nasal spray to stop a seizure and it’s not effective, can you switch rescue medications and give Diastat?

These are great questions and that’s why it’s important to have a rescue plan. Every rescue plan needs to have an option. What if the rescue medication doesn’t work? When can you use another dose, should you call 911… Again, this is not an answer for everyone, and it really depends on the age of the patient and the dose that is to be given.

Using different types of rescue medication at the same time is possible, but it’s unusual. There are rescue medications that you can repeat after five or 10 minutes. It’s not that commonly used but it’s possible. But this is something that should be discussed and patients should ask that of their neurologist.

Again important to have a rescue plan where we discuss these situations… what to do with one medication doesn’t work. Can I use a second dose? When should I call 911? And so on.

If a patient already has a benzo, such as Onfi, as part of their daily AED regime, are the rescue meds effected?

The good answer is: it’s possible. There’s a phenomenon of tolerance to benzodiazepines, and so if a patient is on Onfi or clobazam, it’s possible that they may require a higher dose of rescue medication.

And this is something that is going to need more research for the newer medications. For the new medication, Nayzilam, the patients in the study were not allowed to be on benzodiazepines. And so we need more information about it. It’s definitely not a contraindication, but it may be that the patients may notice that they may require a higher dose.

Are there resources available for school personnel or other professionals on how to use rescue medications? 

I think that the Epilepsy Foundation is a great resource. They have examples of rescue medication plans.

Are there sublingual rescue medications that would work more quickly than a pill?

People are using lorazepam or clonazepam buccally or sublingually. I think the exact absorption has not been studied as well, but there’s a potential that it works faster than swallowing the pill. Although many of these pills are not meant to be used sublingually, so they may not dissolve as fast.

There are companies trying to develop different products, for example, a film that goes into the cheek to get absorbed faster. It’s an active area of research looking for different routes of administration.

For a child who has had a history of refractory epilepticus, when would it be ideal to administer the rescue medications or call 911? This person in particular is not comfortable waiting five minutes.

So, the answer is right there. If you’re not comfortable waiting five minutes, you shouldn’t do that. There is not an answer for everyone. And that’s why I continue to mention that which rescue medication you use, when to administer it, etc. should be a decision between the patient, caregiver, and the doctor depending on the user’s seizures, what kind of seizures they have.

For example, you may be willing to wait longer if you’re having a focal motor seizure, which is a seizure where you have, for example, motor activity without loss of awareness. These seizures can go on for several minutes without causing any significant harm to the patient, but a tonic-clonic seizure going on for four or five minutes, it can be potentially a concern.


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.

Epilepsy Surgery: Advancements, Options, & Considerations

For some people with uncontrolled seizures, epilepsy surgery is an effective and important option to consider. This webinar will help patients and caregivers approach this difficult and sometimes confusing conversation with their doctors.

Webinar presenter Dr. Kate Davis explores recent advances in epilepsy surgery, which have increased not only the types of surgeries available to patients but expanded who is an appropriate candidate for surgery. Dr. Davis also discusses the different tests performed as part of an epilepsy surgical evaluation and review current surgical options including resective surgery, laser ablation, and implantable devices.

Dr. Kate Davis is Medical Director of the Epilepsy Surgical Program and Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at the University of Pennsylvania.


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Plus, get the patient perspective on epilepsy surgery from this episode of our Seizing Life podcast.

Audience Q&A with Dr. Davis

How do you make sure that someone won’t have any new problems with memory or function after surgery?

There are some parts of the brain that we don’t worry about it that much. However, there are a lot of parts that are really critical real estate. The neuropsychological testing is really helpful for us to determine whether there’s risk. There are also clinical factors that come into play. The age that the seizures started is really important. If seizure started really early in life, most people will have had a lot of reorganization of the brain and the areas of the seizures are usually not functioning. We can do some testing for that.

The functional MRI can look at where language is. We can also look at where motor function is, or what allows you to move your hands or your legs. With patients who have intracranial EEG, we can use those electrodes to map function. We do a combination of these things, plus our knowledge of what brain regions do in most people’s brains, and that can help us make an assessment of risk. Then that should be discussed by your treatment team with the family and the patient, if there is risk.

Are the ketogenic diet and AEDs are tried before surgery even becomes an option?

I briefly mentioned that the ketogenic (keto) diet is mostly used in pediatrics. I’m not a pediatric epilepsy specialist, but many pediatric patients will try the keto diet with seizure medications before considering surgery. Not all. That’s something definitely should be discussed with your treatment team. In adults, there’s very little evidence that the keto diet and other dietary therapy substantially helps with seizure. We do not have a trial of a diet therapy before we consider surgery because the data is really not there to support that decision.

Can deep brain stimulator (DBS) or RNS can ever be implanted in pediatric patients?

I don’t know the specific age cutoffs because I don’t treat pediatrics, but the NeuroPace device is designed for the skull or the head of a seven-year-old or older. I think they are trying to change labeling to push the age back to pediatrics, and there are some centers that are implanting NeuroPace devices in pediatric patients. It is being done. Some of it is off label use, meaning it’s not under the FDA-approved label. The deep brain stimulator device is much newer, and I honestly don’t know if there are pediatric sites that are implanting that yet. I’m sure that we’ll learn that soon. I know that the pediatric epileptologists are very passionate about bringing these kind of technologies to their patients when they think it’s indicated.

Can you ever skip any of the tests, or is there a certain order that you always have to go through?

In the presentation, I went through a whole laundry list of tests. Not every patient needs each one of those tests. There is some variation in what centers use which tests. Some centers may not have availability of some tests, or have more experience with certain ones.

One test that I did not cover is a Wada test, which is done less frequently, but still at many centers is done. We will sometimes do Wadas in some patients. We will frequently do a functional MRI before doing that. Wada, just as an offside, is a test that’s been done for a very long time in epilepsy that is more invasive than the functional MRI, and that’s really one of the reasons there’s a move away from that test. Because it involves an injection of a drug that puts one side of the brain to sleep for a few minutes, during which time the neuropsychologist can do testing to look at function. Then you do it for the other side of the brain. That can give us information trying to determine the risk of the memory or language problems after a surgery, going back to the first question. In isolated cases, we are still doing Wadas.

I hesitate to say there’s a certain group of tests that each patient really needs. At a minimum, a brain MRI and EEG data is really done I think at every center. Then there’s some variation.


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.

A cute little girl in a yellow shirt holding a tomato in front of a bowl of salad.

Epilepsy and Dietary Therapies: How What You Eat May Help Control Seizures

For individuals with epilepsy – particularly refractory epilepsy – change of diet can be a recommended therapy for seizure control. While the ketogenic diet has been around for almost a century and is the arguably the most well-known dietary treatment option, today, there are multiple diets used to treat specific epilepsy types and syndromes.

In this webinar, two neurologists present both the research and clinical perspectives of dietary therapies. Dr. Jong Rho speaks to the science backing the use of dietary therapies to control seizures, and Dr. Eric Kosoff discusses how doctors determine which patients to recommend these therapies for, as well as how patients can work with their doctors to navigate these options.

Dr. Jong Rho is Professor of Pediatrics, Clinical Neurosciences, and Physiology and Pharmacology at the University of Calgary and Dr. Eric Kossoff is Professor of Neurology and Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins Children’s Center.

Plus, listen to our Seizing Life podcast episode featuring registered dietician Robyn Blackford and advanced practice nurse Breanne Fisher for more information about using the ketogenic diet to treat epilepsy.


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.

Webinar: Post-Traumatic Epilepsy (PTE)

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Dr. Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Professor of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania
CURE presents a leading expert on Post-Traumatic Epilepsy

In CURE’s Leaders in Epilepsy Research webinar, participants hear from a leading expert on Post-Traumatic Epilepsy (PTE), epilepsy resulting in physical trauma to the brain. The webinar reviews efforts underway to advance our understanding of PTE, as well as the exciting new therapies being developed that may one day result in a cure.

It is presented by Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, MD, PhD, of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Diaz-Arrastia is an expert on the molecular, cellular, and tissue level mechanisms of trauma-induced neuroregeneration and injury-related synaptic plasticity. He works to develop effective therapies for Post-Traumatic Epilepsy.

Plus, hear more about the history and current state of PTE research from this episode of our Seizing Life podcast.

Webinar: Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

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A webinar discussing the population at risk for Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) and what risk factors may be involved. Dr. Elizabeth Donner explores the personal impact of SUDEP, the latest research statistics, and what resources are available to the community. Part of the CURE Leaders in Epilepsy webinar series.

A doctor examines brain scans while a girl sits on her father's lap in the background.

Transitioning from Pediatric to Adult Epilepsy Care

Transitioning from pediatric to adult care is a major milestone for individuals with epilepsy and their families. Unfortunately, this process can be delayed due to the multitude of health and comorbid conditions which can accompany epilepsy, as well as the personal bond between the family and their pediatric care team.

This webinar discusses how epilepsy patients, their families, and pediatric neurologists can develop a plan to prepare for the transition of care. The presenter, Dr. Joseph Sirven, explores what factors to consider when transitioning care, established research guidelines for transitioning care, and the resources available to assist everyone involved.

This webinar is conducted by Dr. Joseph Sirven, Professor of Neurology and Chair Emeritus in the Department of Neurology and Director of the Epilepsy Program at the Mayo Clinic’s Arizona Campus. Dr. Sirven serves as editor-in-chief at www.epilepsy.com.

 


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.

A visibly pregnant woman looks at a prescription, which her doctor is handing to her.

Webinar: Epilepsy, Pregnancy, and Contraception

Pregnancy and contraception can be a difficult subject for women with epilepsy to discuss with their doctors, however it is critical for reproductive health.

Women with epilepsy must face certain considerations when starting a family.  This webinar focuses on the research surrounding epilepsy and pregnancy, as well as provides strategies to help minimize risks for both mother and baby.

This webinar is conducted by Dr. Elizabeth Gerard, Associate Professor of Neurology with a specialty in epilepsy at Northwestern University. Her clinical focus is contraceptive and pre-conception counseling as well as the management of epilepsy during pregnancy.

Plus, hear how one mom navigated epilepsy and pregnancy safely in this episode of the  Seizing Life podcast.


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.

Four adults wearing light blue shirtsembrace and walk away from the camera in support of one another.

Webinar: Separating Stigma from Truth: Epilepsy Research and Resources

Have you ever been afraid to talk about your epilepsy to friends and coworkers for fear of repercussions? Epilepsy stigma is prolific and can affect all aspects of a person’s life. Approximately 50% of people in the US and Europe report feeling stigmatized because of their epilepsy diagnosis, according to recent studies.

Discover research findings about the public attitudes and beliefs about epilepsy, as well as how likely people with epilepsy are to encounter stigma due to negative public attitudes. We review how these harmful stereotypes affect quality of life, and explore what recent evidence suggests communities can do to improve public attitudes and reduce epilepsy stigma.

Let’s end these epilepsy stereotypes and shine a light on the truth.

This webinar is presented by Dr. Ann Jacoby, Professor Emerita in the Department of Public Health and Policy at the University of Liverpool, UK.


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Audience Q&A with Dr. Jacoby on Epilepsy Stigma

Dr. Ann JacobyHow can individuals overcome epilepsy stigma related to employment, the workplace, and co-workers? Are there strategies people can use?

The Epilepsy Action group is asked quite often on how to position telling your employer about your epilepsy. “If I’m going to be interviewed for a job, do I tell the potential employer that I have epilepsy?” The position people tend to take is not to disclose having epilepsy immediately. Sometimes you will be asked a question on an application form and you may have to then say something, but the epilepsy should not be the foremost thing. The question is, do you have the qualities and qualifications you need to do the job? We perhaps need to be more active by going to employers and presenting ourselves to them in a robust way as a person who has the skills that are needed.

Now, in the UK (and I suspect it’s the same in the US under the Americans with Disabilities Act) employers do have to make certain provisions for people who have long-term health conditions. When my team did the survey asking members of the general public in the UK about their attitudes and knowledge of epilepsy, we also did one with employers. We found that employers were a strange mixture of willingness to adapt and still holding negative attitudes. But they were willing to consider things like letting people do shorter days, letting them come in later in the morning if they needed to or leaving earlier, and so on.

Overall, employers surveyed were willing to consider adapting the work environment to fit the needs of people with epilepsy. I think that’s a really helpful thing to know and perhaps we need to just have that conversation with employers much more than we have so far to move their thinking along.

Are people with epilepsy who need to take time off for doctor’s appointments covered under the Americans with Disabilities Act? 

I’m not familiar enough with the Americans with Disabilities Act to know whether these individuals are protected to go to doctor’s appointments. I would say that anyone who has an illness of any sort may need to see a doctor from time to time for a regular checkup or for treatment adjustments and so on. I think that employers would recognize that sometimes people have to take time off and that applies to anybody. To me, to you, to anyone.

I think we need to be firm about our rights as employees, but we also can turn to acts like the UK and the US Act and look at how those acts protect us in difficult situations where employers are being unreasonable.

How do we really change people’s attitudes in regards to cognitive ability?

Again, I think there is this problem that people always link having epilepsy with having conditions which may occur in people with epilepsy or without epilepsy. We do know that in people with very severe epilepsy, there may be cognitive problems, but we also know that the drugs people take to control their seizures may create some cognitive difficulties. Quite often people talk about having memory problems – they feel they aren’t as alert and so on.

These are difficulties, but the important message is they are not necessarily happening for every person with epilepsy. It’s the conflation of the notion that, if you have epilepsy, you must also have cognitive difficulties that we need to really need to change thinking about. That change requires a lot of educational efforts not only in general populations but also in particular subgroups like lawyers.

Do you know if countries are combating stigma by actually helping educate people about epilepsy in school-age children and adolescence?

There are projects to do that, but I think our difficulty is that these projects are often very small scale. It’s actually quite difficult to get funds to do those sorts of projects, which is where I think charities and their fundraising efforts have a big role to play. It can be quite difficult to convince teachers, school boards, and so forth that epilepsy awareness is an important part of educating of young and teenage children. Buy, yes, there are small scale initiatives doing that kind of work and perhaps we can use the outcomes from those initiatives to convince funders this is a really worthwhile educational activity.

Earlier you mentioned the difference between the developed and the developing world in regards to stigma. What are some of the principal differences?

The answer goes back to understanding how different cultures think about epilepsy. A few years ago, the US National Institute of Health had my team to look at the nature of epilepsy stigma in China and Vietnam. We explores what things cause epilepsy and how it can be treated, and then looked at how that differed from the way the public thinks epilepsy is treated. In those two countries, people’s understanding about what causes epilepsy are not hostile ideas, the sort that I mentioned in which people think someone with epilepsy is possessed by evil spirits.

The general notions in China and Vietnam were much more aligned with traditional Chinese medicine ideas about imbalance in the body systems. Epilepsy and seizures were perceived to be caused by bodily imbalance and treatments were focused on reducing those imbalances. In China, for example, people with epilepsy do take modern western drugs, but these individuals often thought the drugs were there to stop seizures and traditional medicine was needed to realign the body to rid you of epilepsy.

These are very benign ideas and there was a great sense of care towards people with epilepsy, but there was also a recognition that they presented danger to themselves, if not to others. For example, they couldn’t work in rice paddy fields, because they might have a seizure and drown. People were worried about them having seizures outside in the community and being treated badly, so caregivers tended to keep family members with epilepsy at home and isolated from others. People with epilepsy in China and Vietnam were not considered particularly good marriage partners because they were believed to be unable to perform tasks, like childcare, that marriage expects of them.

These ideas were very different from ancient ideas, but the impact tended to be the same. In fact, you see this kind of evolution of ideas continue to have negative impacts on people with epilepsy in other cultures, even though the ideas themselves are very different. If you look at some countries in Africa, you see very different ideas about causes of epilepsy compared to China. In these countries, sin and possession by evil spirits still are held to be important causes of epilepsy and ideas about the condition are very hostile. People with epilepsy are treated quite poorly in quite a lot of African countries. In some countries, epilepsy is referred to as the “burning disease” because… People believe you can’t touch someone who is having a seizure because they think epilepsy is contagious, so individuals fall into open fires and get burned.

So, I think those cultural ideas are really important and they do emphasize that you need to understand the ideas underlying epilepsy in order to develop educational programs.


The CURE Leaders in Epilepsy Webinar Series has covered many topics related to epilepsy and innovations in research. Check out our full list of available webinars here.


The information contained herein is provided for general information only and does not offer medical advice or recommendations. Individuals should not rely on this information as a substitute for consultations with qualified health care professionals who are familiar with individual medical conditions and needs. CURE strongly recommends that care and treatment decisions related to epilepsy and any other medical condition be made in consultation with a patient’s physician or other qualified health care professionals who are familiar with the individual’s specific health situation.