This issue of Epilepsy Research News includes summaries of articles on:
- Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on People with Epilepsy: Findings From the US Arm of the COV-E Study
- Ketamine: An Effective Treatment for Neonatal, Pediatric Epilepsy
- Seizures in Young Stroke Survivors Doubles Dementia Risk
- Age at Epilepsy Diagnosis and EEG can Help Predict Returning Seizures After Stopping Antiseizure Medication
- A New Technique to Understand Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
A recent survey of people with epilepsy and their caregivers showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on self-management and mental health for those with epilepsy. Some of the topics covered in the study include timeliness of taking medications, mental health, stress, and discussions with a healthcare provider about sleep, antiseizure medications, and potential side effects. The findings highlight the need for healthcare providers to be more aware of the increased emotional distress in people with epilepsy.
Treatment with a prescription medication called ketamine significantly reduced seizure occurrence related to refractory status epilepticus in neonates and children, according to results of a new study. In the study, researchers sought to determine the safety and efficacy of ketamine in young patients for this difficult to treat form of epilepsy. Results showed that after ketamine infusion, 32 patients experienced seizure cessation, 19 patients experienced seizure reduction, while there was no change in 18 patients. Three patients had adverse events requiring intervention during or within 12 hours of ketamine administration, including hypertension in two patients and delirium in one patient. “Many children with status epilepticus have persistent seizures despite administration of at least two appropriately dosed antiseizure medications,” stated the study authors. “Ketamine… may be a beneficial alternative.”
For young stroke survivors, the subsequent development of seizures more than doubles their risk of developing dementia, according to a recently published study. Researchers used the IBM Watson Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database to identify 23,680 patients (aged 18 to 60 years) with ischemic strokes or hemorrhagic strokes from 2006 through 2009. The researchers found that young patients with stroke who developed seizures had a greater risk for dementia than those without seizures. The authors noted that “since strokes are occurring in younger people and survival rates are increasing, it is important to understand the long-term effects and determine who is at greatest risk for severe complications like dementia.”
Recent research has identified characteristics that can help predict the likelihood of seizures returning in children who have stopped taking antiseizure medication (ASM) after becoming seizure free. Among the characteristics studied, three were associated with a higher chance of having returning seizures after stopping ASM and included adolescent age at diagnosis, unusual EEG findings after the medication was stopped, and having a high number of seizures while taking medication. This information may be useful to doctors as they consider discontinuing antiseizure medication in their patients.
A team of researchers used a new technique to find a link between a specific protein in the brain and increased vulnerability to neurodegeneration for individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. The technique used by the researchers made it possible to study small amounts of tissue from hard-to-reach regions within the brain. Using this new technique, the researchers identified changes in a protein called GluN3 that is associated with cellular damage. The technique allowed the researchers to narrow the focus to specific areas of the brain where neurons are dying. The study author has applied to patent the technique, known as ‘area-specific tissue analysis’. This advanced technique may lead to a new understanding of the causes of epilepsy and therapies to help patients, stated the study author.