Abstract found on PubMed
Purpose: The present study evaluated whether patients with epilepsy with dual conditions of felt stigma and depressive symptoms are more strongly associated with social anxiety, being unmarried, and being unemployed than those with depressive symptoms or felt stigma alone.
Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional study evaluated subjects using the Stigma Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the six-item versions of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, and the companion Social Phobia Scale. Subjects were grouped by depressive symptoms and felt stigma into four groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results: The 298 subjects included 173 men and 125 women. Of these subjects, 35 (11.7%) had depressive symptoms alone, 33 (11.1%) had stigma alone, and 27 (9.1%) had both depressive symptoms and felt stigma. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that, compared with the control group having neither depressive symptoms nor felt stigma, the odds ratios (ORs) for social interaction anxiety and social phobia were highest in the group of dual conditions (OR 18.7 and 13.5, respectively), followed by the depression-alone (OR 7.7 and 4.6, respectively) and stigma-alone (OR 5.0 and 2.8, respectively) groups. Similarly, the ORs for being unmarried (OR 29.2) and unemployed (OR 3.1) were significant only in the group of dual conditions. In addition, male sex and younger age were independently associated with being unmarried whereas seizures recurring ?1 per month were independently associated with being unemployed.
Conclusions: Dual conditions of felt stigma and depressive symptoms may be more strongly associated with social anxiety, being unmarried, and being unemployed than depressive symptoms or felt stigma alone in patients with epilepsy.