After initially successful treatment of infantile spasms, the long-term cumulative risk of relapse approaches 50%, and there is no established protocol to mitigate this risk. Although vigabatrin may be an effective means to prevent relapse, there is little guidance as to ideal duration and dosage. Using a cohort of children with infantile spasms and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), we evaluated the potential association of post-response VGB treatment and the rate of infantile spasms relapse. Patients with infantile spasms and clinical response to vigabatrin were identified among a multicenter prospective observational cohort of children with TSC. For each patient we recorded dates of infantile spasms onset, response to vigabatrin, relapse (if any), and quantified duration and dosage of vigabatrin after response. Time to relapse as a function of vigabatrin exposure was evaluated using survival analyses.
We identified 50 children who responded to VGB. During a median follow-up of 16.6 months (IQR 10.3-22.9), 12 (24%) patients subsequently relapsed after a median of 7.8 months (IQR 3.1-9.6). Relapse occurred after VGB discontinuation in four patients, and during continued VGB treatment in the remaining eight cases. In survival analyses, risk of relapse was unaffected by the presence or absence of VGB treatment (HR 0.31, 95%CI 0.01-28.4, P?=? 0.61), but weighted-average dosage was associated with marked reduction in relapse risk: Each 50 mg/kg/d increment in dosage was associated with 61% reduction in risk (HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.17 – 0.90, P?=? 0.026).
This study suggests that the risk of infantile spasms relapse in TSC may be reduced by high-dose vigabatrin treatment.