For patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, neurostimulation offers nonpharmacological strategies to improve seizure control. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nuclei, and responsive neurostimulation (RNS) are approved therapies which have shown efficacy in randomized short-term trials. Controlled data from prospective studies are needed to confirm reports on stable or even increasing evidence from studies with longer follow-up and to confirm that neurostimulation may offer advantages also regarding cognitive tolerability and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)-risk.
Here, a review of long-term outcomes is given, highlighting both achievements in terms of efficacy and tolerability and limitations of conclusions thereon related to an uncontrolled data basis and decreasing cohort sizes. This article is part of the Special Issue: “Individualized Epilepsy Management: Medicines, Surgery and Beyond”.