CONCLUSIONS: This series suggests efficacy and safety of ketogenic diet (KD) for treatment of pediatric convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE).
PURPOSE: To describe the efficacy and safety of ketogenic diet for convulsive refractory status epilepticus.
METHODS: RSE patients treated with KD at the 6/11 participating institutions of the pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group from January-2011 to December-2016 were included. Patients receiving KD prior to the index RSE episode were excluded. RSE was defined as failure of ?2 anti-seizure medications, including at least one non-benzodiazepine drug. Ketosis was defined as serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels >20?mg/dl (1.9?mmol/l). Outcomes included proportion of patients with electrographic (EEG) seizure resolution within 7?days of starting KD, defined as absence of seizures and ?50% suppression below 10??V on longitudinal bipolar montage (suppression-burst ratio ?50%); time to start KD after onset of RSE; time to achieve ketosis after starting KD; and the proportion of patients weaned off continuous infusions 2 weeks after KD initiation. Treatment-emergent adverse effects (TEAEs) were also recorded.
RESULTS: Fourteen patients received KD for treatment of RSE (median age 4.7 years, interquartile range [IQR] 5.6). KD was started via enteral route in 11/14 (78.6%) patients. KD was initiated a median of 13?days (IQR 12.5) after the onset of RSE, at 4:1 ratio in 8/14 (57.1%) patients. Ketosis was achieved within a median of 2?days (IQR 2.0) after starting KD. EEG seizure resolution was achieved within 7?days of starting KD in 10/14 (71.4%) patients. Also, 11/14 (78.6%) patients were weaned off their continuous infusions within 2 weeks of starting KD. TEAEs, potentially attributable to KD, occurred in 3/14 (21.4%) patients, including gastro-intestinal paresis and hypertriglyceridemia. Three month outcomes were available for 12/14 (85.7%) patients, with 4 patients being seizure-free, and 3 others with decreased seizure frequency compared to pre-RSE baseline.