Abstract, originally published in Epilepsia
Objectives: There is no effective therapy to prevent the development of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). Recently, we reported that administration of the antiseizure medication (ASM) levetiracetam (LEV) shortly after trauma prevented the development of epileptiform activity in two experimental models of neurotrauma. However, the time window for effective intervention with LEV may be too narrow for most clinical settings. Using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model, the current study tested whether early administration of brivaracetam (BRV), an ASM with 20 times the affinity of LEV for the SV2A synaptic vesicle protein, could improve upon the antiepileptogenic action observed with LEV.
Methods: Rats (postnatal day [P] 24–32) subjected to CCI injury were given a single dose of BRV (21 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) at one of three post-injury time points: immediately (0–2 minutes), 30 minutes, or 60 minutes. Control animals received only vehicle (0.9% saline). Posttraumatic electrographic epileptiform activity was assayed ex vivo from coronal neocortical slices collected proximal to the injury (four per rat) 3–4 weeks after injury. In this model, ictal-like burst discharges occur spontaneously or can be evoked in an “all or none” manner with applied electrical stimulation within the first 2 weeks after injury.
Results: A single dose of BRV administered to rats up to 60 minutes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) significantly reduced the development of posttraumatic epileptiform activity by (1) inhibiting the development of both evoked and spontaneous epileptiform activity, (2) raising the threshold for stimulus-evoked epileptiform discharges, and (3) reducing the intensity of epileptiform bursts that arise after cortical neurotrauma.
Significance: Clinically there has been little success preventing the development of posttraumatic epilepsy. The results of this study support the hypothesis that early intervention with briveracetam has the potential to prevent or reduce posttraumatic epileptogenesis, and that there may be a limited time window for successful prophylactic intervention.