This issue of Epilepsy Research News includes summaries of articles on:
- Epilepsy-Causing Neural “Hubs” in Children
- Potential Cause of Infantile and Epileptic Spasms Syndrome
- Underreported Symptoms in Patients with Genetic Epilepsy
- How Cannabidiol Counters Epileptic Seizures
- How the Brain’s Immune System Response Worsens Epilepsy
Epilepsy-Causing Neural “Hubs” in Children
A new method of determining which brain cells lead to seizures in children has been developed. The team used noninvasive techniques and advanced computational methods to measure the electric and magnetic signals generated by neural cells to identify brain “hubs” responsible for the generation of seizures in children with epilepsy. This team retrospectively analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography data recorded from 37 children and young adults with drug-resistant epilepsy who had neurosurgery. They then created a virtual model of the brain and virtually implanted sensors at locations where invasive EEG contacts had been placed during neurosurgery. The researchers found that the virtual sensors could non-invasively identify highly connected hubs in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. The authors stated that the discovery could help to identify areas of the brain that generate epileptic activity in children with drug-resistant epilepsy in a non-invasive way.
Potential Cause of Infantile and Epileptic Spasms Syndrome
New research featuring the work of a former CURE Epilepsy grantee, Dr. Chris Dulla, and colleagues suggests that the timing of the death of a subset of neurons in the brain shortly after birth may be partly to blame for infantile and epileptic spasms syndrome (a form of which is also called infantile spasms (IS) or West syndrome), a childhood epilepsy with poor outcomes. These neurons are responsible for providing inhibitory input to the brain; the lack of these neurons may lead to too much excitation and epileptic spasms. The research suggests that it may be the timing of inhibitory neuron cell death which is important, not just the fact that it occurs. This research may suggest a potential target for the future development of treatments for infantile and epileptic spasms.
Underreported Symptoms in Patients with Genetic Epilepsy
A new study increases our understanding of symptoms associated with changes in the STXBP1 gene, one of the most common genetic causes of childhood epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. By systematically mapping symptoms and assessing their impacts on patients and their caregivers, the researchers identified previously underreported symptoms beyond just neurological symptoms. To understand these symptoms, the researchers performed more than 24 hours of interviews among 19 caregivers of 16 individuals with STXBP1-related disorders and seven healthcare professionals. In doing so, the researchers created a so-called “disease concept model,” which is meant to determine which outcomes are relevant in everyday clinical practice. These results may serve as an important foundation for future trials assessing the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions for all related symptoms.
How Cannabidiol Counters Epileptic Seizures
A study reveals a previously unknown way in which cannabidiol (CBD), a substance found in cannabis, reduces seizures in many treatment-resistant forms of pediatric epilepsy. The new study found that CBD blocked signals carried by a molecule called lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). Found in brain cells called neurons, LPI is thought to amplify nerve signals as part of normal function but can also be hijacked by disease to promote seizures. The work confirmed a previous finding that CBD blocks the ability of LPI to amplify nerve signals in a brain region called the hippocampus. The current findings suggest for the first time that LPI also weakens signals that counter seizures, further explaining the value of CBD treatment. “Our results deepen the field’s understanding of a central seizure-inducing mechanism, with many implications for the pursuit of new treatment approaches,” stated a study author. “The study also clarified, not just how CBD counters seizures, but more broadly how neural circuits are balanced in the brain.”
How the Brain’s Immune System Response Worsens Epilepsy
In a new study using a fruit fly model of epilepsy, researchers describe a chain of events that link the brain’s immune system response to worsening seizures. The researchers used flies with a mutation in a gene known as the prickle gene, similar to the mutation in the PRICKLE gene found in humans with progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia, and found that this particular mutation can lead to increases in a condition called oxidative stress. The researchers found that oxidative stress can activate the brain’s resident immune cells (called glia), which in turn triggers more severe seizures. “We have provided genetic proof that both oxidative stress and activation of the brain immune system make epilepsy worse,” stated a study author. “This is hugely significant because our data suggest that we can now repurpose exceedingly well-tolerated anti-inflammatory compounds as well as perhaps antioxidants to help control epilepsy progression.”